Introduction to Nanoneuron
Nanoneuron provides simulations and models of regions of the human brain.

Introduction to Nanoneuron



Introduction

Current Project Phase: Research and Development

Currently in research and development here at Neural Mimetics is the Nanoneuron and Nanoneural Networks Systems. The Nanoneuron is an artificial neuron manufactured in a laboratory setting that identically mimics biological neurons functions and behaviors. Because it can function identically to their biological counterparts, the Nanoneurons will one day be able to fully replace biological neurons in living brain tissue. Applications of Nanoneurons include replacement of damaged neurons from cognitive diseases, modification and enhancement of biological neural networks, and interfacing of biological neurons with modern electronic devices (via wireless connections between Nanoneurons and the Nanoneuron Wireless Router System).


Nanoneuron Structure

The core structure of the Nanoneuron is a graphene shell 40 nanometers wide, 100 times smaller than a biological neuron. Attached to the graphene shell are graphene based lock and key Neurotransmitter Receptor Switches. The lock and key graphene Neurotransmitter Receptor Switches allow for different neurotransmitters to act as a key and enter the receptor switches. Once entered, transistor logic circuits within the core Nanoneuron structure will signal the presence of the neurotransmitter in the switch and further processing will occur, just like a biological neuron synapses behave.


One key different between biological neurons and artificial nanoneurons is the way they interconnect with other neurons. Biological neurons form biological neural networks by forming synapses with one another and transferring chemical neurotransmitters or direct electrical stimulation for communication. Artificial nanoneurons work a bit differently. They do not form synapses or transfer chemical neurotransmitters between each other. Instead they communicate via Nano transceivers located on the graphene shell. They send out electromagnetic signals to one another. The signals they send are exact emulations of the chemical neurotransmitters of their biological counterparts. Instead of physically transferring a GABA neurotransmitter for example, the artificial nanoneurons create a signal that signifies a simulated GABA neurotransmitter and broadcasts the signal out to its nearest connected nanoneuron neighbor. The receiving neighbor then processes the GABA signal in the same way a biological neuron would process receiving a GABA neurotransmitter. The wireless communication knows which nanoneuron will receive the signal because each nanoneuron is assigned a unique identifier which is used within the signal propagation.


The nanoneurons are equipped with a nano voltage meter and signal probe. The probe allows for detection of the nearest biological neuron in proximity to the nanoneuron. Once the nanoneuron identifies its nearest biological neural neighbor, it uses the probe to monitor all the electrical activity over a set time span. It does this to learn the behavior for neural mapping and logging which can then be sent out to the Nanoneuron Wireless Router for data analysis. It also does this so that it may replace the biological neuron entirely by using the signal probe to disable or destroy the biological neuron once it has learned to fully mimic all its behaviors.

Biological Neuron Replacement with a Nanoneuron

Upon transfer into living neural tissue, the nanoneuron will begin using its voltage meter probe to find the nearest electrical field being generated by the nearest biological neuron. It will monitor this activity and begin to change its behavior to match exactly that of the biological neurons behavior. In addition to mimicking, it will communicate to all of the nanoneurons up and downstream from its position. They will also be mimicking the biological neurons up and downstream of the neural pathway. They will begin communicating wirelessly with each other in a way that exact matches the way the biological neurons in the neural pathway performs. Overtime, the nanoneurons will form an artificial neural network directly on top of the biological neural network.

At this point, the artificial neural network could wireless send all of its data directly to the outside world via the Nanoneuron Wireless Router for data analysis and processing. This provides a way of detailed micro granular analysis of the brain functions that was never before possible. Once fully mimicking the biological neural network, the next step is to replace the biological neurons with the artificial nanoneurons.

One by one, the artificial nanoneurons begin to disable their mimicked biological neurons by using the attached voltage probe. The voltage probe overwhelms the biological neuron with voltages that effectively shut off the biological neuron completely. The voltage probe will either temporarily shut of the biological neuron or destroy it completely depending on the application. For diseases like Parkinson’s and depression, having the voltage probe only disable regions of diseased neurons is enough to stop many of the symptoms. For applications such as neural data transfers and enhancements, destroying the biological neuron may be required.

Nanoneuron Power Source

The power source for the nanoneuron is still in active research. A battery pack worn by the individual could be used to generate wireless electrical inductance for charging the nanoneurons within the neural tissue. The wireless field would have to be designed in a way which would not interfere with the biological neurons resting potential or action potential voltage. Another method being researched is using the body’s own energy by using ATP to power the nanoneurons.

Nanoneuron Placement In Brain Tissue

In order to transfer the nanoneurons into living neural tissue, the nanoneurons would be mass produced so that they would far outnumber the actual biological neurons in the neural tissue it is targeting. The shell of the nanoneuron would be magnetically sensitive so that they can be moved with magnetic fields that will surround the patients head. The magnetic fields will be used to evenly distribute the nanoneurons in neural tissue. Because they number of nanoneurons will far outnumber the biological neurons, the even distribution should guarantee at least one nanoneuron is brought within vicinity of a biological neuron so that it may mimic, monitor, and/or replace it at some point.

Nanoneuron Removal From Brain Tissue

In the same way the nanoneurons are inserted in the neural tissue, the magnetic fields will be used to remove them as well. This time they will group the nanoneurons into channels which will slowly migrate their way out of the body and into containment canisters. The nanoneurons will still remain on and because they communicate wireless by id, they will still function as if they were physically next to the nearest neighbors while now randomly distributed in the containment canisters. While in the containment canisters, the nanoneurons will also remain a link to the outside would via Nanoneuron Wireless Router. At this point, all the neural data is removed from the neural tissue but the data held within still remains in its original state.










How to create a new Nanoneuron project

Nanoneuron is a development platform used developing creating nanomachines and nanostructures. It provides a listing of particles which can be selected and dragged onto a nano development testbed. Once on the development testbed, the particles can be placed and used to create structures and devices on the nanoscale. The interaction between particles is simulated within the test bed. The tool will ensure the stability of the structure of device created.

How to load an existing Nanoneuron project

Nanoneuron is a development platform used developing creating nanomachines and nanostructures. It provides a listing of particles which can be selected and dragged onto a nano development testbed. Once on the development testbed, the particles can be placed and used to create structures and devices on the nanoscale. The interaction between particles is simulated within the test bed. The tool will ensure the stability of the structure of device created.


How to you snap to grid?

Nanoneuron is a development platform used developing creating nanomachines and nanostructures. It provides a listing of particles which can be selected and dragged onto a nano development testbed. Once on the development testbed, the particles can be placed and used to create structures and devices on the nanoscale. The interaction between particles is simulated within the test bed. The tool will ensure the stability of the structure of device created.


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